30 - Hanna Reitsch April 1945

Brandenburger Tor

 

Brandenburger Tor will be part of the background in this diorama.

 

As you can see of the picture taken after the war, (see above)

the place in front of the famous Gate was not in the best state,

and when Hanna Reitsch landed there, it was obvious much

worse with intense bombardment from the Soviet Armies all

around - and closing in.

 

The building of the Gate was easy enough, just some wooden

sticks as columns and cardboard and Polystyrene as building

material for everything else.

Then everything painted with acryl.

 

The damages were extensive, it was a wonder the Gate was

standing while most of the surrounding buildings were just piles

of rubbish.

 

Behind the Gate, I put up some buildings in ruins, put a lot of

debris on the ground all around and painted it dark and dirty.

 

Then I painted a dark smoke-filled background of a burning city.

 

It all became rather hostile and intimidating. Just as I

imagined the situation would be in Berlin in the terrible

days in late April 1945

The Props

 

At the Boulevard in front of Brandenburger Tor, there would be

all kind of debris, ruins, soldier, burned out vehicles etc.

 

I, therefore, build some Wehrmacht Soldiers, a bullet ridden

Sd.Kfz.10 German half-track and a Citroen staff car plus a

damaged, but still working Flak 30 (20mm) canon.

 

I also build some ruins out of Polystyrene and painted with acryl.

 

These will be placed around the square.

 

Hanna Reitsch: Hitler's Female Test pilot

 

a diorama by Bjørn Jacobsen

The model of the Storch is from Tamiya. Scale 1:48

Fieseler Fi-156C

Specifications

 

 

 

 

 

Crew: 2

Length: 9.9 m (32 ft 6 in)

Wingspan: 14.3 m (46 ft 9 in)

Height: 3.1 m (10 ft 0 in)

Wing area: 26 m² (280 ft²)

Empty weight: 860 kg (1,900 lb)

Loaded weight:1,260 kg (2,780lb)

Powerplant: 1 × Argus As 10 air-cooled inverted V8 engine, 180 kW (240 hp)

 

Maximum speed: 175 km/h (109 mph) at 300 m (1,000 ft)

Slowest speed: 54km/t (34mph)

Range: 380 km (210 nmi, 240 mi)

Service ceiling:4,600 m (15,090ft)

Rate of climb: 4.8 m/s (945 ft/min)

 

It had incredible STOL (Short Take Off and Landing) abilities:

In favorite condition, it could take off and land in as little as 15m (45ft), which is about the plane’s wingspan (!)

 

The Storch saw service on every front where the German Army fought, from the Arctic to the African desert.

 

It was a very survivable aircraft - when flying at 54km/t (34mph) it was very difficult for modern fighter aircraft to actually catch it, and each Storch was said to have had a combat life ten times longer than the average Bf 109!

 

Hanna Reitsch flying to

Berlin 26th April 1945

 

On April 26, 1945 Hanna Reitsch was in the narrow cockpit of

a small Fieseler Fi-156C Storch together with Luftwaffe

Generaloberst Ritter von Greim.

 

Underneath was Berlin, burning and in ruins and completely

encircled by the Russian armies.

 

They were on their way to meet with Hitler who intended to

appoint von Greim as a new chief of the Luftwaffe, but they

also planned to persuade Hitler to fly out with them and

escape to Bavaria.

von Greim was at the controls of the small STOL reconnaissance

aircraft and Reitsch crouched behind him.

 

Flying low over the burning city and through a hail of Soviet

anti-aircraft fire, the plane was hit in the engine and fuel tank.

An armor-piercing bullet smashed von Greim's right foot,

and he passed out.

 

How Hanna managed to take control of the Storch is short of a

miracle.

 

The seats in the Fi-156 are placed behind each other and there

is no room to get around the seats. With the pilot unconscious,

there is normally no space to switch places – but the person in

the back seat was a small woman (5 ft) and she managed to

crawl over to the front seat, take control of the plane and

continued towards the centre of Berlin.

 

The Fi-156 did not need more than 21m (70ft) of landing space

but the streets in Berlin was filled with demolished houses,

wrecks and barricades and there was hardly any place to land.

 

But Hanna Reitsch managed to put the Storch down on the war

beaten boulevard.

 

During intense Russian bombardment, they both made it to

Hitler's bunker, where they stayed for two days.

 

Hitler would not listen to their pleading. He would not leave the

bunker.

 

On the 28th April, Hitler ordered them to flee Berlin and in the

final hours of the Russian assault on the city, von Greim and

Reitsch escaped in an aircraft (Arado Ar 96) hidden near the

bunker.

 

She was the last person to get out of the beleaguered Berlin,

and the return trip should on any rational basis have been

impossible.

 

Two days later, Hitler committed suicide and the war was over.

 

On May 9, Hanna Reitsch was taken into custody by the Americans.

 

The rumours said that she had flown Hitler to freedom and she was, therefore, interrogation by US intelligence personnel. In the end, Hanna Reitsch was exonerated of guilt from war crimes and finally released from prison after 15 months.

 

 

 

 

The diorama will show the Fieseler Storch and the two pilots on the ground at the Brandenburger Tor while the war rages around them and German soldiers desperately try to stem the Soviet armies.

 

 

You can read more about Hanna Reitsch at the bottom of this page

 

The Branderburger Tor.

Picture taken shortly after the war

The Reichtag (the Parliament) at the end of April 45

 

Hanna Reitsch and

Robert Ritter von Greim

 

I had to make the two main characters in this drama out of bits and

pieces of 1:48 figures in my toolbox.

 

von Greim was wounded in his right foot and after he had gained

consciousness after the landing, Hanna had to help him on their way

to the Führerbunker which was not far from Brandenburger Tor

 

The picture to the right:

The rear entrance to the Führerbunker.It was not far from here

that the Ar 96 was hidden which they used to escape from Berlin

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Arado Ar 96

Trainer

 

Fieseler Fi-156C Storch

 

The picture to the right is the only picture of Hanna’s

Fi-156 which I have found.

 

It shows the Storch placed behind the Brandenburger Tor

(you can see the Siegessäule in the background) and

guarded by a British soldier.

 

The plane was badly damaged when the

picture was taken.

 

In addition to the damages inflicted by Soviet AAA, it was

most probably hit several times when parked on the ground.

 

And obviously, souvenir looters also had a field day before

the picture was taken.

 

The plane on the picture is therefore not representative.

 

If fact, the Storch which Hanna Reitsch flew to the centre of

Berlin on the 26th April 1945, went through an unbelievable

barricade of Soviet AAA.

 

They were lucky, normally; a slow flying plane like the Storch

should never have reached its destination.

 

The plane received several hits in the wings and fuselage

which tore up the skin (fabric) in several places, but the

plane could still fly.

 

The fuel tank (in the wing) was hit and so was the engine

cowling and some panels was ripped off, but the worst

was the grenade penetrating the cockpit and wounded

von Greim in the leg.

 

To get it as authentic as possible, I have to build all these

damages into the model.

 

For the visual damages, I made some holes both in the

upper and lower wings, glued in the wing panels (which

could be seen in the openings) and used thin metal sheets

to substitute for the torn fabric in the wings.

 

The metal was borrowed from a tube with Bacon Cheese.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

There are a lot of glasses around the cockpit and all

these had to be masked before painting.

The camouflage colours was standard

70-71-65 splinter (Black Green/Green/Light Blue)

 

 

 

 

Then, it's time to put everything together in a diorama:

 

If you want to know more about Hanna Reitsch:

 

The woman who would one day become the best-known test pilots of the Third Reich was born on March 29, 1912. She became fascinated with flying at a young age and when she was 14, she had set her sights on becoming a flying missionary doctor in Africa.

She was admitted to the Grunau School of Gliding, but for Hanna, the real goal was flying – not gliding.

Despite the derision of the male students as well as instructors — she was the only woman in her class — she was the first class member to pass the 'A' level beginning course. Authorities were so taken aback when they learned of her rapid progress that they made her retake the test — which she once again passed. She went on to pass the 'B' and 'C' tests before beginning medical school at the University of Berlin.

While studying medicine, she also continues with flying lessons. She soon realised that most pilots knew little if anything about the engines of their planes. That seemed to her to be like a doctor who knew nothing about the heart. Never afraid of hard

work or dirty hands, she started hanging out with the mechanics at the flight school and worked herself

into their favour as they realised she was serious about learning about airplane engines.

She managed the flight school with no problems and demonstrated superb piloting skills, even doing

stunt flying for motion pictures.

 

Glider Test Pilot

In 1934, she travelled to Brazil and Argentina as part of a German research expedition to test-fly gliders in

extreme thermal conditions. Her growing reputation as a pilot resulted in her leaving medical school and

accepting an invitation to become an experimental glider test pilot at the Deutschesforschungsinstitut fur

Segelflug (DFS), the German Research Institute for Sailplane Flight at Darmstadt.

She test-flew the first glider seaplane and evaluated the capabilities of new glider catapult mechanisms.

 

Hanna Reitsch and Ernst Udet

In 1936 Hanna Reitsch met Ernst Udet, head of the Technical Branch of the Ministry of

Aviation and the highest-scoring German fighter ace to survive World War I. At the time, she

was working on the development of dive brakes for gliders. After demonstrating the use of

dive brakes in a vertical dive before Udet, other Luftwaffe generals and German aircraft

designers, she was awarded the honorary rank of Flugkapitän, the first woman ever so

honoured.

In 1937 she was designated as a Luftwaffe civilian test pilot, a post she would hold until the

end of World War II

 

Hanna Reitsch and Robert Ritter von Greim

Reitsch also became close to another former fighter pilot and rising Luftwaffe star, Robert

Ritter von Greim, a Bavarian ace that had scored 25 aerial victories during World War One.

Greim rose to be the most senior officer of Luftwaffe by the end of the war.

 

In the years leading up to WWII, Reitsch made a name for herself on the international flying circuit. In May 1937, she became one of the first Germans to fly a glider over the Alps. That same year, she set a world long-distance record and won the National Soaring Contest — the only woman entrant.

 

Luftwaffe Test Pilot

Udet appointed her a civilian test pilot at the primary Luftwaffe research station at Rechlin, she was

allowed to fly almost anything she could lay her hands on, which included most of the high-performance

aircraft in the Luftwaffe inventory.

In February 1938, at Udet's bidding, Reitsch would become the first person to fly a helicopter, the

Focke-Achgelis Fa-61, inside a building, Berlin's Deutschlandhalle.

She also became the first woman to be awarded the Military Flying Medal, thanks to her helicopter flights.

In 1939, she becomes involved in the development of large cargo-, troop- and fuel-carrying gliders.

The work was largely abandoned after the 180-foot wingspan Messerschmitt Me-361 Gigant crashed and

killed the pilots of its three Me-110 tow planes, the Gigant's six-man crew and 110 troops in the glider.

She later undertook a very dangerous assignment involving the development of barrage balloon cable

shears for German bombers.

 

Flying the Me 163 Komet

In 1942 the operational version of the single-seat rocket-powered bomber interceptor known as the Komet,

the Messerschmitt Me163, was undergoing testing at the research centre at Augsburg. Reitsch became

determined to fly this bullet-shaped plane, driven by a liquid-fueled Walther rocket engine. By the autumn

of 1942, she did three flights in the prototype, Me163A, as well as a flight in the first production model,

the Me163B.

Reitsch's last flight in the Me163B nearly ended her life. The flight proceeded uneventfully until Reitsch

moved the control to drop the takeoff undercarriage. The plane immediately began to shudder and

became nearly impossible to control. The undercarriage had not fallen away as it was designed to do.

 

The Accident

Reitsch decided to try to land the plane. She nearly succeeded, but at the last instant the aircraft stalled

and crashed into a ploughed field just short of the runway. She survived the crash but suffered severe

injuries. Her nose was nearly sheared off, her skull was fractured in four places, two facial bones were

fractured, and her upper and lower jaws were misaligned.

 

Iron Cross and Gold Medal for Military Flying

Four days after that accident, in tribute to her skill and bravery in this and other developmental work, Reitsch was

awarded a special diamond-encrusted version of the Gold Medal for Military Flying by Reichsmarshall Göring.

She was also later awarded the Iron Cross First Class.

 

After five months in the hospital and much plastic surgery, Reitsch was discharged.

Without medical permission she began to fly again, starting with gliders and graduating to powered aircraft and

strenuous aerobatic manoeuvers until she was satisfied that her flying skills were as good as they had ever been.

In August 1943, 10 months after her accident, her surgeon gave her medical clearance to return to normal

activities. Reitsch followed the Me163 development group to its site at Peenemünde-West. There, she learned

the details of the pulse-jet powered V-1 buzz bomb and the V-2 ballistic missile programs.

She survived unscathed the first Allied bombing raid on the complex, which left most of Peenemünde a pile of

rubble.

 

The Suicide Missions

Shortly thereafter, when she met with friends in Berlin at a luncheon, the conversation turned to a discussion of what they could do to save Germany from what was now seen as a slide into defeat. The group decided to propose aerial strikes on strategic Allied targets carried out by suicide bomber pilots, a concept dubbed Operation Self Sacrifice.

Her longtime friend Greim approached her with a request to visit him on the Russian Front in an attempt to boost the morale of the troops. During that trip, Reitsch's understanding of the bloody realities of war was driven home with a brutal vengeance. This new reality fueled her determination to press for the formation of a corps of suicide pilots.

Late in 1943, Reitsch took the opportunity to discuss Operation Self Sacrifice directly with Hitler when she was invited to a ceremony at Berchtesgaden to receive her Iron Cross First Class. He parried her efforts to talk about a suicide bomber plan by launching into a long, rambling monologue about how the new twin-engine Messerschmitt Me262 jet fighter would save the day.

Reitsch pressed her case and finally gained the Führer's reluctant permission to go ahead with

experimental work only — with the proviso that he must be spared the details.

 

Operation Self Sacrifice got underway with a plan to use the Me328B, already in the prototype stage,

as a parasitic 'Sacrificial Fighter.' Reitsch and other pilots carried out experiments with the Me328

flying under its own power as well as functioning as a glider to be launched from a Dornier Do-217E

twin-engine bomber. These plans were abruptly terminated when an Allied bombing raid wiped out

the factory in which the prototype Me328s were being built.

 

The V-1 Glider Bomb and Fi 103

The planners then adjusted their sights, hoping to use the V-1 guided glider bomb then entering

operational status. Seventy of the V-1s equipped with cockpits for piloted flight were ordered, to be

built by Fieseler and designated as the Fi-103 Reichenberg.

This manned version of the V-1 proved easy to fly but glided like a brick and was tricky to land on its

skid because of its very high landing speed and tendency to ground-loop.

In the Fi-103 test plane, the cockpit was directly in front of the engine intake. It was assumed that in

the event of an emergency during test flights, the pilot would be able to open the canopy and bail out.

In fact, it is more than likely that the exiting pilot could not survive if the engine was running. Two of

the seven Fi-103 instructors were killed, and four were injured. Reitsch was the only one of the group

to survive the test program without injury.

 

Instructor for the Suicide Squadron

Reitsch was designated as an instructor of the volunteer pilots in what was called the Leonidas

Squadron (formally the 5th Staffel of Kampfgeschwader 200)

She encountered numerous difficulties with the project, thanks to the indifference of her high-ranking

Nazi friends. The prevailing attitude among them amid the disastrous military situation in late 1944

was that the very idea of suicide pilots was 'un-German' and that it went against the grain of the

German psyche.

 

The last months of Reitsch's wartime service involved flying wounded soldiers into hospital airstrips,

carrying urgent dispatches by air and surveying air routes into the rubble of Berlin.

 

Meeting with Hitler April 26 1945

Her last mission in the war was to fly into Berlin and meet with Hitler on April 26-28 1945.

 

After the War

For some years after the war, the Allies forbade Germans from participating in gliding.

Reitsch eventually began lecturing in Europe, but she was banned from flying in competitions in

England until 1954.

Throughout the remainder of her life, Reitsch remained a controversial figure, tainted by her ties —

both real and suppositious — to the dead Führer and his henchmen. The circumstances surrounding

her 1945 sojourn in Hitler's Berlin bunker especially haunted her. In a postscript to a new edition of

her memoirs, published shortly before her death from a heart attack in 1979, she wrote that

‘so-called eyewitness reports ignore the fact that I had been picked for this mission because I was a

pilot and trusted friend [of Greim's], and instead call me `Hitler's girl-friend'….

 

During WWII, Hanna Reitsch devoted her energy and skill to what she considered to be German

nationalism as distinct from Nazism, believing she owed her allegiance to Germany, not to Hitler.

But above all, throughout her life, she remained passionately committed to aviation, especially gliding.

 

She set more than 40 records during her lifetime, many of them in gliders.

 

Generaloberst von Greim died by suicide on 24th May 1945

 

Hanna Reitsch died in Frankfurt by heart attack in 1979

I hope you enjoyed this website! Thank you for visiting!

 

Please do not hesitate to ask if you have questions

(bjorn@dioramas-and-models.com)

 

 

 

Bjørn Jacobsen

 

 

February 2015

 

This diorama will be on display at

the new WWII hanger at